Possessives: Alienable

The (arguably) broadest category of possession is "Alienable". This category is used for items that are considered to be distinct from the possessor, transferrable, and/or impermanent in nature (practically speaking). This includes:

The Possessive Articles

This possessive is formed by using the appropriate possessive article. These articles are a combination of pronoun and definite article. As such, they share traits of each harmonizing with the gender of the possessor and the plurality of the possession. These articles cannot be used simultaneously with each other or with the definite article.

Pronunciation Note
Please note the differences in pronunciation between these articles and the pronouns and definite article which all use the same ideographic symbols.

Examples

1st Person (my)

Translation: Open     Gloss: Open Pop-up
xV 
khuhtiv
xʌ.tiv
Poss. (1st Neut.)
cas 
chahs
ʧɑs
table
my table (formal)

1st Person Plural (our)

Translation: Open     Gloss: Open Pop-up
XV 
krytiv
ɪ.tiv
Poss. (1st plur. Neut.)
cas 
chahs
ʧɑs
table
our table (formal)

2nd Person (your)

Translation: Open     Gloss: Open Pop-up
qV 
rraotiv
ra͡ʊ.tiv
Poss. (2nd Neut.)
cas 
chahs
ʧɑs
table
your table (formal)

3rd Person Sentient (his / her / their)

Translation: Open     Gloss: Open Pop-up
CV 
zhehdiv
ʒɛ.div
Poss. (Neut.)
cas 
chahs
ʧɑs
table
his/her table (formal)

3rd Person Non-Sentient (its)

Translation: Open     Gloss: Open Pop-up
FV 
ghaodiv
ɣa͡ʊ.div
Poss. (3rd Non-Sentient Neut.)
cas 
chahs
ʧɑs
table
its table (formal)

Note that inanimate objects do not carry gender, and thus do not effect formality of speech.

3rd Person Inanimate (its)

Translation: Open     Gloss: Open Pop-up
LV 
gehdiv
.div
Poss. (3rd Inanim.)
cas 
chahs
ʧɑs
table
its table

Named Possessors and Gender Harmonization

Formal

These same articles (not including the 1st and 2nd person singular) are used to connect a possessor directly to possession.

Examples

Formal: Example 1

Translation: Open     Gloss: Open Pop-up
,jan, 
,jahn,
ʤɑn
John
CV 
zhehdiv
ʒɛ.div
Poss. (3rd Neut.)
cas 
chahs
ʧɑs
table
John's table (formal)

Formal: Example 2

Translation: Open     Gloss: Open Pop-up
,jEn, 
,jen,
ʤen
Jane
CV 
zhehdiv
ʒɛ.div
Poss. (3rd |Neut.)
cas 
chahs
ʧɑs
table
Jane's table (formal)

Formal: Example 3

Translation: Open     Gloss: Open Pop-up
V 
tiv
tiv
the
fun 
fun
fun
dog
FV 
ghaodiv
ɣa͡ʊ.div
Poss. (3rd Non-sentient Neut.)
cas 
chahs
ʧɑs
table
The dog's table (formal)

Informal

The possessive article must harmonize with the gender of the possessor. Gender for the possessive articles functions the same as gendered nouns. Because formal speech in Kryptonian uses the neutral gender, most often the neutral form of the posessive article is preferred (as above). It is when using familiar speech that harmonization can become tricky for non-native speakers.

Note that the pronunciation of the first vowel in the article changes just as the pronouns do.

Examples

Informal: Example 1

Translation: Open     Gloss: Open Pop-up
,jan, 
,jahn,
ʤɑn
John
>CV 
zhodiv
ʒo.div
Poss. (3rd Masc.)
cas 
chahs
ʧɑs
table
John's table (informal)

Informal: Example 2

Translation: Open     Gloss: Open Pop-up
,jEn, 
,jen,
ʤen
Jane
<CV 
zhediv
ʒe.div
Poss. (3rd |Fem.)
cas 
chahs
ʧɑs
table
Jane's table (informal)

Informal: Example 3

Translation: Open     Gloss: Open Pop-up
V 
tiv
tiv
the
fun 
fun
fun
dog
>FV 
ghudiv
ɣu.div
Poss. (3rd non-pers. Masc.)
cas 
chahs
ʧɑs
table
The dog's table (informal)

Indeterminate

Examples

In this example, formal vs. familiar cannot be determined due to the nature of the vowel y.

Indeterminate: Example 1

Translation: Open     Gloss: Open Pop-up
X|V 
krytiv
ɪ.tiv
Poss. (1st Plur.
cas 
chahs
ʧɑs
Neut.|)
my table (formal/familiar)

In this example, because the possessors are both male and female, the neutral vowel is required for even gendered/familiar speech.

Indeterminate: Example 2

Translation: Open     Gloss: Open Pop-up
,jan, 
,jahn,
ʤɑn
John
c 
chao
ʧa͡ʊ
and
,jen, 
,jen,
ʤen
Jane
X|V 
krytiv
ɪ.tiv
Poss. (3rd Neut.|)
cas 
chahs
ʧɑs
table
John's and my table (formal/familiar)

In this example, the inanimate pronoun does not take a gender, and thus does not affect formality.

Indeterminate: Example 3

Translation: Open     Gloss: Open Pop-up
V 
tiv
tiv
the
ruRElas 
rurrelahs
ɹurelɑs
house
LV 
gehdiv
.div
Poss. (3rd Inanim.)
cas 
chahs
ʧɑs
table
The house's table

Plural Harmonization

The possessive article must harmonize with the plurality of the possession. The second vowel in the possessive article follows the same plural harmonization rules as the definite article.

Note that the pronunciation of the character V changes depending on plurality just as the definite article does.

Examples

Harmonization: Example 1

Translation: Open     Gloss: Open Pop-up
,jan, 
,jahn,
ʤɑn
John
CV 
zhodiv
ʒo.div
Poss. (Masc.)
cas 
chahs
ʧɑs
table
John's table (familiar)

Harmonization: Example 2

Translation: Open     Gloss: Open Pop-up
,jan, 
,jahn,
ʤɑn
John
CV 
zhodov
ʒo.dov
Poss. (masc.)
caso 
chahso
ʧɑs.o
table+plural
John's tables (familiar)

Harmonization: Example 3

Translation: Open     Gloss: Open Pop-up
,jan, 
,jahn,
ʤɑn
John
CV 
zhoduv
ʒo.duv
Poss. (masc.)
casu 
chahsu
ʧɑs.u
table+many
many of John's tables (familiar)

Harmonization: Example 4

Translation: Open     Gloss: Open Pop-up
,jan, 
,jahn,
ʤɑn
John
CV 
zhoduv
ʒo.duv
Poss. (masc.)
casuju 
chahsuju
ʧɑs.u.ju
table+all
all of John's tables (familiar)

Harmonization: Example 5

Translation: Open     Gloss: Open Pop-up
,jan, 
,jahn,
ʤɑn
John
CV 
zhodahv
ʒo.dɑv
Poss. (masc.)
casa 
chahsah
ʧɑs.ɑ
table+few
few of John's tables (familiar)

Harmonization: Example 6

Translation: Open     Gloss: Open Pop-up
,jan, 
,jahn,
ʤɑn
John
CV 
zhodahv
ʒo.dɑv
Poss. (masc.)
casaZA 
chahsahzha
ʧɑs.ɑ.ʒæ
table+none
none of John's tables (familiar)

Putting It All Together

Here are a few full sentences that display all the features of possessive gender and plural harmonization.

Formal vs. Familiar

Mixed: Example 1

Translation: Open     Gloss: Open Pop-up
.cAd^ 
.chadodh
ʧæd.
give+[Simple Present]
V 
tiv
tiv
the
Sed 
shehd
ʃɛd
person (neut.)
W 
w
[Object]
CV 
zhehdiv
ʒɛ.div
Poss. (neut.)
cas 
chahs
ʧɑs
table+[All]
Sed 
shehd
ʃɛd
person (neut.)
oS 
osh
[Benefactive]
The person gives his/her table to the person." (formal)

Mixed: Example 2

Translation: Open     Gloss: Open Pop-up
.cAd^ 
.chadodh
ʧæd.
give+[Simple Present]
V 
tiv
tiv
the
Sod 
shod
ʃod
person (masc.)
W 
w
[Object]
>CV 
zhodiv
ʒo.div
Poss. (masc.)
cas 
chahs
ʧɑs
table+[All]
SEd 
shed
ʃed
person (fem.)
oS 
osh
[Benefactive]
The man gives his table to the woman." (familiar)

Mixed: Example 3

Translation: Open     Gloss: Open Pop-up
.cAd^ 
.chadodh
ʧæd.
give+[Simple Present]
V 
tiv
tiv
the
Sed 
shehd
ʃɛd
person (neut.)
W 
w
[Object]
CV 
zhehdov
ʒɛ.dov
Poss. (neut. plural)
caso 
chahso
ʧɑs.o
table+[all]
Sed 
shehd
ʃɛd
person (neut.)
oS 
osh
[Benefactive]
The person gives his/her tables to the person." (formal)

Mixed: Example 4

Translation: Open     Gloss: Open Pop-up
.cAd^ 
.chadodh
ʧæd.
give+[Simple Present]
V 
tiv
tiv
the
Sod 
shod
ʃod
person (masc.)
W 
w
[Object]
>CV 
zhodov
ʒo.dov
Poss. (masc. plural)
caso 
chahso
ʧɑs.o
table+[all]
SEd 
shed
ʃed
person (fem.)
oS 
osh
[Benefactive]
The man gives his tables to the woman." (familiar)

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